Manajemen Hubungan Pelanggan (bahasa Inggris: Customer Relationship Management disingkat CRM) adalah suatu jenis manajemen yang secara khusus membahas teori mengenai penanganan hubungan antara perusahaan dengan pelanggannya dengan tujuan meningkatkan nilai perusahaan di mata para pelanggannya.

Pengertian lain mengatakan bahwa ia adalah sebuah sistem informasi yang terintegrasi yang digunakan untuk merencanakan, menjadwalkan, dan mengendalikan aktivitas-aktivitas prapenjualan dan pascapenjualan dalam sebuah organisasi. CRM melingkupi semua aspek yang berhubungan dengan calon pelanggan dan pelanggan saat ini, termasuk di dalamnya adalah pusat panggilan (call center), tenaga penjualan (sales force), pemasaran, dukungan teknis (technical support) dan layanan lapangan (field service).

Sasaran dan Tujuan

Sasaran utama dari CRM adalah untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan jangka panjang dan profitabilitas perusahaan melalui pengertian yang lebih baik terhadap kebiasaan (behavior) pelanggan. CRM bertujuan untuk menyediakan umpan balik yang lebih efektif dan integrasi yang lebih baik dengan pengendalian return on investment (ROI) di area ini.

Otomasi Tenaga Penjualan (Sales force automation/SFA), yang mulai tersedia pada pertengahan tahun 80-an adalah komponen pertama dari CRM. SFA membantu para sales representative untuk mengatur account dan track opportunities mereka, mengatur daftar kontak yang mereka miliki, mengatur jadwal kerja mereka, memberikan layanan training online yang dapat menjadi solusi untuk training jarak jauh, serta membangun dan mengawasi alur penjualan mereka, dan juga membantu mengoptimalkan penyampaian informasi dengan news sharing.SFA, pusat panggilan (bahasa inggris:call center) dan operasi lapangan otomatis ada dalam jalur yang sama dan masuk pasaran pada akhir tahun 90-an mulai bergabung dengan pasar menjadi CRM. Sama seperti ERP (bahasa Inggris:Enterprise Resource Planning), CRM adalah sistem yang sangat komprehensif dengan banyak sekali paket dan pilihan.

Merujuk kepada Glen Petersen, penulis buku “ROI: Building the CRM Business Case,” sistem CRM yang paling sukses ditemukan dalam organisasi yang menyesuaikan model bisnisnya untuk profitabilitas, bukan hanya merancang ulang sistem informasinya.

CRM mencakup metoda dan teknologi yang digunakan perusahaan untuk mengelola hubungan mereka dengan pelanggan. Informasi yang disimpan untuk setiap pelanggan dan calon pelanggan dianalisa dan digunakan untuk tujuan ini. Proses otomasi dalam CRM digunakan untuk menghasilkan personalisasi pemasaran otomatis berdasarkan informasi pelanggan yang tersimpan di dalam sistem.

Fungsi-fungsi dalam CRM

Sebuah sistem CRM harus bisa menjalankan fungsi:

  • Mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor yang penting bagi pelanggan.
  • Mengusung falsafah customer-oriented (customer centric)
  • Mengadopsi pengukuran berdasarkan sudut pandang pelanggan
  • Membangun proses ujung ke ujung dalam melayani pelanggan
  • Menyediakan dukungan pelanggan yang sempurna
  • Menangani keluhan/komplain pelanggan
  • Mencatat dan mengikuti semua aspek dalam penjualan
  • Membuat informasi holistik tentang informasi layanan dan penjualan dari pelanggan

Mengimplementasikan CRM

Customer relationship management adalah strategi tingkat korporasi, yang berfokus pada pembangunan dan pemeliharaan hubungan dengan pelanggan. Beberapa paket perangkat lunak telah tersedia dengan pendekatan yang berbeda-beda terhadap CRM. Bagaimanapun, CRM bukanlah teknologi itu sendiri, tapi ia adalah pendekatan holistik terhadap falsafah organisasi, yang menekankan hubungan yang erat dengan pelanggan. CRM mengurus filosofi organisasi pada semua tingkatan, termasuk kebijakan dan proses, customer service, pelatihan pegawai, pemasaran, dana manajemen sistem dan informasi. Sistem CRM mengintegrasikan pemasaran, penjualan, dan customer service dari ujung ke ujung.


Customer relationship management (CRM) is a broadly recognized, widely-implemented strategy for managing a company’s interactions with customers, clients and sales prospects. It involves using technology to organize, automate, and synchronize business processes—principally sales activities, but also those for marketing, customer service, and technical support. The overall goals are to find, attract, and win new clients, nurture and retain those the company already has, entice former clients back into the fold, and reduce the costs of marketing and client service.[1] Customer relationship management describes a company-wide business strategy including customer-interface departments as well as other departments.[2]

Related trends

Many CRM vendors offer Web-based tools (cloud computing) and software as a service (SaaS), which are accessed via a secure Internet connection and displayed in a Web browser. These applications are sold as subscriptions, with customers not needing to invest in purchasing and maintaining IT hardware, and subscription fees are a fraction of the cost of purchasing software outright.


The three phases in which CRM support the relationship between a business and its customers are to:

  • Acquire: CRM can help a business acquire new customers through contact management, direct marketing, selling, and fulfillment.
  • Enhance: web-enabled CRM combined with customer service tools offers customers service from a team of sales and service specialists, which offers customers the convenience of one-stop shopping.
  • Retain: CRM software and databases enable a business to identify and reward its loyal customers and further develop its targeted marketing and relationship marketing initiatives.


Tools and workflows can be complex, especially for large businesses. Previously these tools were generally limited to contact management: monitoring and recording interactions and communications. Software solutions then expanded to embrace deal tracking, territories, opportunities, and at the sales pipeline itself. Next came the advent of tools for other client-interface business functions, as described below. These tools have been, and still are, offered as on-premises software that companies purchase and run on their own IT infrastructure.

Often, implementations are fragmented—isolated initiatives by individual departments to address their own needs. Systems that start disunited usually stay that way: siloed thinking and decision processes frequently lead to separate and incompatible systems, and dysfunctional processes.


Sales force automation

Sales force automation (SFA) involves using software to streamline all phases of the sales process, minimizing the time that sales representatives need to spend on each phase. This allows sales representatives to pursue more clients in a shorter amount of time than would otherwise be possible. At the heart of SFA is a contact management system for tracking and recording every stage in the sales process for each prospective client, from initial contact to final disposition. Many SFA applications also include insights into opportunities, territories, sales forecasts and workflow automation, quote generation, and product knowledge. Modules for Web 2.0 e-commerce and pricing are new, emerging interests in SFA.


CRM systems for marketing help the enterprise identify and target potential clients and generate leads for the sales team. A key marketing capability is tracking and measuring multichannel campaigns, including email, search, social media, telephone and direct mail. Metrics monitored include clicks, responses, leads, deals, and revenue. This has been superseded by marketing automation and Prospect Relationship Management (PRM) solutions which track customer behaviour and nurture them from first contact to sale, often cutting out the active sales process altogether.

Customer service and support

Recognizing that service is an important factor in attracting and retaining customers, organizations are increasingly turning to technology to help them improve their clients’ experience while aiming to increase efficiency and minimize costs. Even so, a 2009 study revealed that only 39% of corporate executives believe their employees have the right tools and authority to solve client problems.“. The core for these applications has been and still is comprehensive call center solutions, including such features as intelligent call routing, computer telephone integration (CTI), and escalation capabilities.


Relevant analytics capabilities are often interwoven into applications for sales, marketing, and service. These features can be complemented and augmented with links to separate, purpose-built applications for analytics and business intelligence. Sales analytics let companies monitor and understand client actions and preferences, through sales forecasting and data quality.

Marketing applications generally come with predictive analytics to improve segmentation and targeting, and features for measuring the effectiveness of online, offline, and search marketing campaign. Web analytics have evolved significantly from their starting point of merely tracking mouse clicks on Web sites. By evaluating “buy signals,” marketers can see which prospects are most likely to transact and also identify those who are bogged down in a sales process and need assistance. Marketing and finance personnel also use analytics to assess the value of multi-faceted programs as a whole.

These types of analytics are increasing in popularity as companies demand greater visibility into the performance of call centers and other service and support channels, in order to correct problems before they affect satisfaction levels. Support-focused applications typically include dashboards similar to those for sales, plus capabilities to measure and analyze response times, service quality, agent performance, and the frequency of various issues.


Departments within enterprises — especially large enterprises — tend to function with little collaboration. More recently, the development and adoption of these tools and services have fostered greater fluidity and cooperation among sales, service, and marketing. This finds expression in the concept of collaborative systems which uses technology to build bridges between departments. For example, feedback from a technical support center can enlighten marketers about specific services and product features clients are asking for. Reps, in their turn, want to be able to pursue these opportunities without the burden of re-entering records and contact data into a separate SFA system. Owing to these factors, many of the top-rated and most popular products come as integrated suites.

Small business

For small business, basic client service can be accomplished by a contact manager system: an integrated solution that lets organizations and individuals efficiently track and record interactions, including emails, documents, jobs, faxes, scheduling, and more. These tools usually focus on accounts rather than on individual contacts. They also generally include opportunity insight for tracking sales pipelines plus added functionality for marketing and service. As with larger enterprises, small businesses are finding value in online solutions, especially for mobile and telecommuting workers.

Social media

Social media sites like Twitter, LinkedIn and Facebook are amplifying the voice of people in the marketplace and are having profound and far-reaching effects on the ways in which people buy. Customers can now research companies online and then ask for recommendations through social media channels, making their buying decision without contacting the company.

People also use social media to share opinions and experiences on companies, products and services. As social media is not as widely moderated or censored as mainstream media, individuals can say anything they want about a company or brand, positive or negative.

Increasingly, companies are looking to gain access to these conversations and take part in the dialogue. More than a few systems are now integrating to social networking sites. Social media promoters cite a number of business advantages, such as using online communities as a source of high-quality leads and a vehicle for crowd sourcing solutions to client-support problems. Companies can also leverage client stated habits and preferences to personalize and even “hyper-target” their sales and marketing communications.

Some analysts take the view that business-to-business marketers should proceed cautiously when weaving social media into their business processes. These observers recommend careful market research to determine if and where the phenomenon can provide measurable benefits for client interactions, sales and support. It is stated that people feel their interactions are peer-to-peer between them and their contacts, and resent company involvement, sometimes responding with negatives about that company.

Non-profit and membership-based

Systems for non-profit and membership-based organizations help track constituents and their involvement in the organization. Capabilities typically include tracking the following: fund-raising, demographics, membership levels, membership directories, volunteering and communications with individuals.

Many include tools for identifying potential donors based on previous donations and participation. In light of the growth of social networking tools, there may be some overlap between social/community driven tools and non-profit/membership tools.


For larger-scale enterprises, a complete and detailed plan is required to obtain the funding, resources, and company-wide support that can make the initiative of choosing and implementing a system successful. Benefits must be defined, risks assessed, and cost quantified in three general areas:

  • Processes: Though these systems have many technological components, business processes lie at its core. It can be seen as a more client-centric way of doing business, enabled by technology that consolidates and intelligently distributes pertinent information about clients, sales, marketing effectiveness, responsiveness, and market trends. Therefore, a company must analyze its business workflows and processes before choosing a technology platform; some will likely need re-engineering to better serve the overall goal of winning and satisfying clients. Moreover, planners need to determine the types of client information that are most relevant, and how best to employ them.
  • People: For an initiative to be effective, an organization must convince its staff that the new technology and workflows will benefit employees as well as clients. Senior executives need to be strong and visible advocates who can clearly state and support the case for change. Collaboration, teamwork, and two-way communication should be encouraged across hierarchical boundaries, especially with respect to process improvement.
  • Technology: In evaluating technology, key factors include alignment with the company’s business process strategy and goals, including the ability to deliver the right data to the right employees and sufficient ease of adoption and use. Platform selection is best undertaken by a carefully chosen group of executives who understand the business processes to be automated as well as the software issues. Depending upon the size of the company and the breadth of data, choosing an application can take anywhere from a few weeks to a year or more.


Implementation issues

Increases in revenue, higher rates of client satisfaction, and significant savings in operating costs are some of the benefits to an enterprise. Proponents emphasize that technology should be implemented only in the context of careful strategic and operational planning. Implementations almost invariably fall short when one or more facets of this prescription are ignored:

  • Poor planning: Initiatives can easily fail when efforts are limited to choosing and deploying software, without an accompanying rationale, context, and support for the workforce. In other instances, enterprises simply automate flawed client-facing processes rather than redesign them according to best practices.
  • Poor integration: For many companies, integrations are piecemeal initiatives that address a glaring need: improving a particular client-facing process or two or automating a favored sales or client support channel. Such “point solutions” offer little or no integration or alignment with a company’s overall strategy. They offer a less than complete client view and often lead to unsatisfactory user experiences.
  • Toward a solution: overcoming siloed thinking. Experts advise organizations to recognize the immense value of integrating their client-facing operations. In this view, internally-focused, department-centric views should be discarded in favor of reorienting processes toward information-sharing across marketing, sales, and service. For example, sales representatives need to know about current issues and relevant marketing promotions before attempting to cross-sell to a specific client. Marketing staff should be able to leverage client information from sales and service to better target campaigns and offers. And support agents require quick and complete access to a client’s sales and service history.

Adoption issues

Historically, the landscape is littered with instances of low adoption rates. In 2003, a Gartner report estimated that more than $1 billion had been spent on software that was not being used. More recent research indicates that the problem, while perhaps less severe, is a long way from being solved. According to CSO Insights, less than 40 percent of 1,275 participating companies had end-user adoption rates above 90 percent.

In a 2007 survey from the U.K., four-fifths of senior executives reported that their biggest challenge is getting their staff to use the systems they had installed. Further, 43 percent of respondents said they use less than half the functionality of their existing system; 72 percent indicated they would trade functionality for ease of use; 51 percent cited data synchronization as a major issue; and 67 percent said that finding time to evaluate systems was a major problem.[15] With expenditures expected to exceed $11 billion in 2010,[15] enterprises need to address and overcome persistent adoption challenges. Specialists offer these recommendations[14] for boosting adoptions rates and coaxing users to blend these tools into their daily workflow:

  • Choose a system that is easy to use: All solutions are not created equal. Some vendors offer more user-friendly applications than others, and simplicity should be as important a decision factor as functionality.
  • Choose the right capabilities: Employees need to know that time invested in learning and usage will yield personal advantages. If not, they will work around or ignore the system.
  • Provide training: Changing the way people work is no small task, and help is usually a requirement. Even with today’s more usable systems, many staffers still need assistance with learning and adoption
  • Lead by example: Showing employees that upper management fully supports the use of a new application by using the application themselves may increase the likelihood that employees will adopt the application.

Privacy and data security system

One of the primary functions of these tools is to collect information about clients, thus a company must consider the desire for privacy and data security, as well as the legislative and cultural norms. Some clients prefer assurances that their data will not be shared with third parties without their prior consent and that safeguards are in place to prevent illegal access by third parties.

(Source :

Posted by: doowee12 | April 7, 2010

Urutan Marketing Plan

1. Excecutive summary and Table of content
Dibuat setelah no. 2 s/d 8 selesai

2. Current Marketing Situation
Situasi pemasaran saat ini tentang : Pasar, Produk, Persaingan, Distribusi, Lingkungan Makro

3. Opportunity and Issue Analysis
Analisis SWOT

4. Objectives
Dari no.3 tetapkan tujuan : Rencana Keuangan & Pemasarannya

5. Marketing Strategy

6. Action Programs
mengubah strategi no. 5 menjadi program aksi pemasaran

7. Projected Profit and Loss Statement
Proyeksi Laba-Rugi

8. Controls

Posted by: doowee12 | March 28, 2010

Sibuk, Sibuk, Sibuk…

Huaaaah, akhir-akhir jadi sibuk banget dah. Sibuk kuliah, sibuk maen, sibuk sok sibuk. hahahah…

Kuliah semseter 4 ini makin parah aja, 7 mata kuliah ditambah 1 tugas besar bikin marketing plan. Dari 7 mata kuliah 5 mata kuliah udah dipastikan bakal ada tugas-tugas yang bikin pusing. Yang 2 lagi, sampai minggu sekarang, minggu ke-2 kuliah, dosennya belum masuk-masuk. Huaaaaah….

Jumpa lagi di lain kesempatan… 🙂

Posted by: doowee12 | March 19, 2010

Hasil Drawing Perempat Final UEFA Champion League.

Tepat pukul 12 waktu Eropa Tengah, Sekjen UEFA Gianni Infantino menyambut para undangan yang di antaranya terdiri dari delegasi delapan klub yang masih bertarung di babak perempat-final Liga Champions. Delapan perwakilan tim yang masuk perempat-final Liga Europa juga hadir.

Setelah tayangan montage tentang Real Madrid, tuan rumah final 22 Mei mendatang, Emilio Butragueno naik ke panggung untuk memulai proses undian. Hadirin pun menghela nafas dalam-dalam.

Tak berapa lama, seperti inilah hasil undian yang muncul:

Hasil undian perempat-final ini mengulang dua partai final Liga Champions, yaitu Bayern versus United (musim 1998/99) dan Arsenal lawan Barcelona (2005/06). Selain itu, dua tim Prancis akan saling berhadapan dan Inter bertemu dengan kuda hitam turnamen, CSKA.

UEFA juga langsung mengundi pertemuan semi-final dan hasilnya adalah:

Pemenang Bayern vs United
Pemenang Lyon vs Bordeaux

Pemenang Inter vs CSKA
Pemenang Arsenal vs Barcelona

Tepat 15 menit setelah dibuka, undian pun selesai.

Laga pertama perempat-final dilangsungkan di kandang tim yang disebut pertama pada 30 dan 31 Maret, sedangkan laga kedua sepekan setelahnya. Semi-final digelar 20 dan 21 April, serta laga kedua sepekan kemudian.


Posted by: doowee12 | March 19, 2010

Requested Post : by chibi_cute (mig33 user)

ada temen nih dari mig33 yang nanyain gimana cara ngubah diafragma, secara doi baru megang kamera DSLR…

langsung aja nih dibaca dengan seksama….

EOS 1000D top view

EOS 1000D back view

Nah, ini dia cara ngerubah diafragmanya: pertama tahan tombol Av, trus puter deh jog dial nya.Biar gampang liat deh gambar dibawah…

Kalau kurang cukup jelas atau ada pertanyaan lain silakan bertanya aja, kita sama-belajar,

Semoga membantu… 🙂

Posted by: doowee12 | March 19, 2010

FOTOGRAFI 2 : Membaca Lensa

Jika melihat lensa pada kamera DSLR, umumnya kita akan menemukan tulisan seperti pada gambar berikut.

18-55 : focal length (panjang fokal lensa)

3,5-5,6 : aperture atau diafragma

Ø : simbol untuk diameter lensa, berguna pada saat memilih lens cap (tutup lensa) dan filter lensa. Jika pada gambar diatas, diameter lensa adalah 55mm.

0.25m/0.82ft : ini menunjukkan jarak terdekat lensa dengan objek untuk lensa dapat melakukan focusing pada objek.

Jika diambil contoh seperti diatas, ini berarti pada focal length 18mm aperture terlebar lensa adalah 3,5 (f/3,5), dan pada focal length maximumnya atau 55mm maka aperture terbesarnya adalah 5,6 (f/5,6). Jika posisi focal length diputar dari 18mm hingga ke 55mm, maka diafragma akan naik menyesuaikan secara otomatis.

Istilah-istilah pada lensa
Fixed lens : lensa dengan focal length yang fixed (tetap), tidak dapat dirubah-rubah. Contoh lensa 50mm/2,8
Fixed Apperture : lensa dengan aperture yang fixed (tetap), baik pada focal length minimum dan maximumnya. Contohnya lensa 100-200mm/4, pada focal length 100mm bukaan terlebarnya adalah 4 (f/4) dan pada focall length 200mm bukaan terlebarnya tetap 4 (f/4). Umumnya semakin kecil angka aperture yang berarti bukaan maksimumnya semakin lebar harga nya akan semakin mahal.
Macro Lens : lensa dengan kemampuan untuk memotret dalam mode makro, yaitu memotret benda-benda yang kecil agar terlihat besar, seperti serangga. Umumnya terdapat keterangan “macro” pada lensa nya. Contoh lensa 50mm/2,8 Macro, 100mm/2,8 Macro, dll
Zoom Lens : lensa yang memiliki range di focal length nya, atau selain fixed lens.
Wide Lens : dapat diartikan sebagai lensa dengan cakupan frame yang luas, umumnya memiliki focal length 16mm kebawah.
Tele Lens : lensa yang memiliki focal length panjang, seperti 300mm, 500mm.

Posted by: doowee12 | March 17, 2010

AlphaShare : Penamaan Lensa SONY / (Konica) Minolta (eng)

Mau share dikit nih, langsung nyomot dari Ebook nya om Gary…

DT – This is a brand new designation for “Digital Technology”. These optics are optimized for the
unique needs of the digital sensor – the rear element is recessed somewhat to minimize internal
reflections, the exit rays tend to be perpendicular to the sensor (especially in the corners), and (and
this is VERY important!) the optics only generate an image circle large enough for the camera’s
image sensor, NOT large enough to cover a 35mm frame. This tactic saves cost and weight, and
makes the lens easier to manufacture.

APO – Normal glass will bend light much like a prism does – the red colors get bent a little more
than the violet, and all colors in between are bent at different rates. This is fine for average lenses
where the precision of the image is not super-critical; but in long telephoto lenses this phenomenon
can contribute to slightly fuzzy images. A really, really sharp picture requires that all optical rays
converge on the same point – an extremely difficult task if the light is bent differently for different
colors. Enter the APOchromatic glass element, or APO for short – this kind of glass bends all
visible light waves by the same amount, producing noticeably sharper images than equivalent lenses
using standard optical glass.

G – This is Sony’s (and Minolta’s) designation for their “Pro” line of lenses – they can be rather
expensive, but they are the best to be found anywhere from any manufacturer. I own several.

–There are some high-end “G” lenses which incorporate a SuperSonic Motor (SSM) in the
lens. Having the focusing motor in the lens (rather than in the body, which drives autofocusing on
all the other lenses) can help long telephoto lenses focus faster, more quietly, and reduce the strain
on the focusing motor residing in the camera body.

– “D” stands for “Distance”; it means that the lens will tell the camera body to what focusing
distance the lens is set. (Yes, believe it or not, with early autofocus bodies, although the camera
could tell when the subject was in focus, the camera had no idea how far away the subject was!)
This is a relatively new feature; it was introduced in the year 2000 to help make flash exposures
more accurate when shooting with highly reflective backgrounds, and is essential for the ADI flash
mode (explained in Chapter 5) to work properly. All new Sony and Zeiss lenses will have the “D”

AF – This just means “Autofocus”, and is used to distinguish it from Minolta’s older “MC”, “MD”,
or “MF” manual-focus lens mounts. Since the lens mount was changed completely when
Autofocus was introduced (in 1985), a manual-focus lens cannot be used on an autofocus body.

Macro – This means “it can focus closely”. Macro lenses are ideal for taking pictures of insects
and other small objects which fill the frame.

(Also called “mirror” lens) – This means the lens is designed primarily using curved optical
mirrors rather than lenses. This is similar to the design of large observatory telescope lenses.
Reflex mirrors are incredibly lightweight and small compared to their pure-optical bretheren. And
it should be noted that Sony / Minolta offers the ONLY autofocusing Reflex lens in the world – the
500mm f/8.
TIP: Cheap but great lenses. Since it is sometimes necessary to optimize a lens’ design for
digital photography, one may wonder if some of the older Minolta designs which worked great on
film cameras will also work great on digital bodies.
Internet forums can be a great place to learn from other peoples’ experiences. While all of
Minolta’s lenses work great on film cameras, here are the inexpensive lenses which users say
work exceptionally well on the digital bodies:
* 24-50 f/4
* 70-210 f/4 (affectionately known as the “beer can”)
* 28-75 f/2.8 (a phenomenal performer for a low price!)
* 35-200mm xi (surprisingly!) This lens also has a motorized zoom feature.
* 50mm f/1.7 – sharp sharp sharp, and cheap cheap cheap!
On the flip side, beware of some older Sigma and other 3rd party lenses, as some will not work on
newer bodies! Also, Minolta’s older (pre-1985) manual-focus lenses, having nomenclature like
“Rokkor”, “MF”, “MC”, or “MD”, will not fit onto the Alpha body.

(source : Gary L. Friedman)

Posted by: doowee12 | March 17, 2010

FOTOGRAFI 1 : Mengenal Aperture, Shutter Speed & ISO.

Aperture & shutter speed adalah dua hal mendasar yang harus dikuasai jika ingin menggunakan sebuah kamera. Dengan catatan, kamera yang kita gunakan dapat disetting manual, seperti pada kamera SLR, DSLR, dan beberapa kamera pocket yang terdapat fitur manual. Selanjutnya adalah ISO, di mana ISO akan berpengaruh terhadap settingan aperture dan shutter speed.

Aperture atau bukaan lensa, disebut juga diafragma, disimbolkan dengan huruf f pada lensa. Pengaturan aperture ini bertujuan untuk menambah atau mengurangi cahaya yang masuk melewati lensa. Cara kerja aperture ini sangat mirip dengan bukaan retina pada mata manusia atau disebut iris. Pada pusat iris terdapat bukaan yang melingkar yang disebut pupil. Diameter pupil akan berkontraksi di lingkungan yang cerah dan akan melebar di lingkungan yang gelap. Hal ini sama dengan apa yang ada di lensa.

Ilustrasi pengaturan bukaan lensa atau aperturestop, biasa juga disebut pengaturan diafragma ditunjukkan pada gambar berikut.

Angka tersebut berlawanan dengan besarnya bukaan lensa, misalnya f/1 memiliki bukaan lensa yang lebih besar dibanding f/2,8.

Shutter Speed
Dapat diartikan kecepatan rana kamera dalam menangkap cahaya, atau durasi sinar yang mengenai sensor setelah tombol shutter di tekan. Untuk lebih memahami shutter speed, bacalah beberapa pernyataan dibawah.

“Shutter speed lambat, sensor kamera lebih lama terkena cahaya, shutter speed cepat, sensor kamera lebih sebentar terkena cahaya.”

“Jika shutter speed lambat dan objek yang ditangkap bergerak, maka akan menghasilkan gambar yang kabur atau blur. Jika objek yang bergerak diambil dengan shutter speed cepat maka akan terjadi efek freeze, atau objek yang bergerak menjadi diam.”

“Jika shutter speed lambat, ditempat yang banyak cahaya, maka akan dihasilkan gambar yang over exposure atau kelebihan cahaya. Jika di tempat yang rendah cahaya, digunakan shutter speed cepat maka gambar yang di hasilkan akan menjadi under exposure atau gelap.”

ISO adalah sensitifitas atau kepekaan sensor kamera dalam menangkap cahaya. Semakin tinggi ISO maka sensor akan semakin peka terhadap cahaya. Tinggi atau rendahnya ISO dapat disesuaikan dengan keadaan cahaya sekitar, sebagai contoh di siang hari yang terik, ISO rendah sudah mencukupi, berlawanan dengan keadaan malam hari yang minim cahaya, maka diperlukan ISO tinggi. ISO ini juga berpengaruh terhadap noise atau kotoran yang ada pada gambar. Kamera-kamera DSLR entry level umumnya dibekali dengan sensor yang kurang bersahabat dengan noise jika menggunakan ISO tinggi pada tempat yang minim cahaya. Umumnya pada ISO 800 atau 1600 dengan kompresi JPEG, gambar sudah unacceptable. Hal ini bisa diatasi dengan menggunakan kompresi RAW, tetapi tetap saja noise nya masih cukup mengganggu. Berbeda dengan kamera DSLR Hi-End yang ditujukan bagi para profesional, noise nya masih bersahabat walaupun menggunakan ISO tinggi dan kompresi JPEG

(harap dikoreksi jika ada kesalahan)

Posted by: doowee12 | March 13, 2010

Tips : Biar Windows Ga’ Lemot (winXP)

Sedikit penjelasan, selain faktor RAM, ada lagi faktor lainnya yang mempengaruhi kinerja windows, antara lain free space harddisk, fragmented space di harddisk, dan virtual memory. Pada artikel ini, akan dibahas bagaimana cara menambah ukuran virtul memory yang tentunya akan meningkatkan performa windows Anda. Virtual memory ini memfungsikan ruang kosong di harddisk sebagai RAM virtual.

1. Klik Start, kemudian klik kanan pada ikon “My Computer”, pilih “Properties”, maka akan muncul jendela “System Properties”.

2. Pindah ke tab “Advanced”, kemudian klik tombol “Settings” pada bagian “Performance”, maka akan muncul jendela “Performance Options”, kemudian klik tab “Advanced” lagi.

3. Selanjutnya klik button “Change”, maka akan muncul jendela “Virtual Memory”.

4. Pilih salah satu drive yang masih terdapat free space sekitar 2GB. Kemudian klik “Custom size”. Pada bagian “Initial size (MB)” isikan sekira 1024, dan “Maximum size (MB)” isikan angka dua kali lipat dari Initial size. Kemudian klik “Set”, dan “OK”.

5. Angka yang diisikan bebas, umumnya sebesar RAM yang terpasang di system, sebagai contoh RAM 512MB, maka virtual memory minimum nya adalah 512, dan maximum 1024. Semakin besar virtual memory, semakin banyak pula aplikasi yang dapat dijalankan (multitasking). Dengan catatan virtual memory ini mengurangi space harddisk.

Cara ini bisa juga untuk mengatasi jika terdapat warning “Virtual memory is too low”.

Semoga membantu… 🙂

Posted by: doowee12 | March 9, 2010

Mozilla Firefox 3.6 – World’s Best Browser

Super Speed

Fasten your seatbelt: Firefox now includes the TraceMonkey JavaScript engine, which gives the browser dramatically better performance than ever before. Firefox has always been fast, but this is the fastest Firefox ever (more than three times as fast as Firefox 3 and 20% faster than Firefox 3.5), meaning Web applications like email, photo sites, online word processors and more will feel snappier and more responsive.

Real World Performance

Having a super fast JavaScript engine is definitely important, but since those changes are often measured in milliseconds sometimes what matters even more is the way the browser feels when you’re actually using it. That’s why we’re constantly optimizing Firefox to be great for the way you use the web – things like making new tabs open up more quickly, or having the Awesome Bar provide results even faster. In the end, it’s about getting you where you need to go as quickly and easily as possible.

Firefox Performance: Fast — Faster — Fastest

Results of a SunSpider test on a Windows 7 machine

Firefox 2, Firefox 3, Firefox 3.5 performance chart

For more information about Firefox features click here.

Download : Mozilla Firefox 3.6 (from

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